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Qui, 21 de Julho de 2011 14:54

NEWS-21-07-2011-3-1A Falência do Setor Rodoviário para o Transporte de Cargas no Brasil e as Suas Alternativas – Modal Dutoviário

Com a crescente expansão do mercado externo e interno dos produtos brasileiros, torna-se imprescindível a preocupação com o escoamento destes produtos. Segundo o Instituto de Logística e Supply Chain (Ilos), as empresas brasileiras gastaram R$ 334 bilhões com logística, ou 11,6% do Produto Interno Bruto[1].

No Brasil há a predominância do modal rodoviário, mas este sistema já está saturado, pois, além de concorrer com o transporte de passageiros, a sua estrutura é a mesma há 30 (trinta) anos, salvo com algumas exceções.

Neste sentido, muitas pesquisas estão sendo desenvolvidas com o intuito de, não só aumentar a capacidade da infraestrutura  já existente, como a implantação e/ou disseminação de novos modais para o transporte de cargas.

Uma das alternativas encontradas é uma modalidade do transporte terrestre, o modal Dutoviário, que vem a ser o modo de transporte que utiliza um sistema de dutos que formam uma linha onde se movimentam produtos de um ponto a outro através de pressão sobre o produto a ser transportado ou por arraste deste produto por meio de um elemento transportador.

Este modal não é recente, pois surgiu com as civilizações antigas, inicialmente para o suprimento do abastecimento de água e, após, na captação e deposição de esgotos domiciliares, emprego este que o caracteriza como a modalidade de maior uso (tonelagem e volume), passando, assim, para a zona de saneamento urbano e saindo da seara dos transportes.

Como bem explicita Maria Cristina Fogliatti, Sandro Filippo e Beatriz Goudard “com o passar do tempo e a descoberta do petróleo, este modal passou a transportar também este mineral, de grande importância na economia mundial, na forma bruta entre os campos de extração e as estações processadoras. Apareceram então, os chamados oleodutos[2]”.

Nos Estados Unidos, mais precisamente no estado da Pensilvânia, no ano de 1865, foi construído o primeiro oleoduto para transporte de hidrocarbonetos, que ligava um campo de produção a uma estação de carregamento de vagões, com uma extensão de 08 (oito) km, ainda no ano de 1865. No Brasil começou em 1942, na Bahia, ligando a Refinaria de Aratu ao Porto de Santa Luzia.

Apesar de já ter sido utilizado pelo cinema para o transporte de uma pessoa, no caso, o fictício General Georgi Koskov, que desertara da União Soviética, interpretado por Jeroen Krabbé no filme The Living Daylights (lançado no Brasil como 007 Marcado para Morrer), de 1987, este modal é utilizado em larga escala transporte de produtos petróleo, óleo, combustível, gasolina, diesel, álcool, GLP, querosene, nafta e derivados de minério. Vale salientar que correspondem a 34% (trinta e quatro por cento) do transporte de petróleo e seus derivados.

As dutovias podem se dividir em oleodutos, gasodutos, minerodutos e polidutos, classificando-as pelo produto que transportam, petróleo, óleo combustível, gasolina, diesel, álcool, GLP, querosene, nafta; gás natural, sal-gema, minério de ferro e concentrado fosfático e, produtos diversos, mas que podem ser misturados, como bebidas engarrafadas e laranjas, respectivamente.

As dutovias podem ser, ainda, submarinas ou terrestres. Naquelas, grande parte da tubulação está submersa, sendo largamente utilizada para o transporte de petróleo das plataformas marítimas para as refinarias ou tanques de armazenagem situados em terra. Neste setor, a  grande representante é a Transpetro, empresa subsidiária da Petrobrás que opera onze mil quilômetros de oleodutos e gasodutos. Já os terrestres, se subdividem em aéreos, aparentes e subterrâneos.

Em nosso país, muitas dutovias são subterrâneas e/ou submarinas, que, além de reduzirem os possíveis riscos causados pelos demais veículos em circulação em acidentes, o transporte é realizado de forma segura, para grandes distâncias, tornando o armazenamento dispensável, reduzindo o custo de transporte e proporcionando um menor índice de perdas e roubos. Além disso, operam ininterruptamente.

Um bom exemplo é o Gasoduto Brasil-Bolívia, com 3.150 quilômetros de extensão, sendo 2.593 em território brasileiro e 557 em território boliviano. O gasoduto Bolívia-Brasil transporta o gás proveniente da Bolívia atravessando 05 (cinco) estados brasileiros (Mato Grosso do Sul, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul) e capacidade total de fornecimento de 30,08 milhões de metros cúbicos, que correspondem, se tratássemos de petróleo, a 200 mil barris/dia.

Apesar de representar apenas 4,2% no transporte de cargas[3], conforme Boletim Estatístico de Janeiro de 2011 da Confederação Nacional dos Transportes – CNT, o investimento neste modal vem aumentando, não só por parte da iniciativa pública, mas também da iniciativa privada.

Um bom exemplo disso é a parceria da Petrobrás com Copersucar, Cosan, OTP, Uniduto e Camargo Correa para a criação de uma nova empresa de logística para o transporte de etanol no Brasil, a ser chamada de Logum Logística S/A, utilizando o sistema dutoviário-hidroviário (multimodal).

Num investimento inicial de R$ 6 bilhões e, conforme depoimento prestado por Paulo Roberto Costa, diretor de abastecimento da Petrobrás, "acreditamos que vamos conseguir uma substancial redução de custos, tornando o etanol ainda mais competitivo[4]”.

Enfim, para garantir o avanço do país no cenário internacional, o Brasil necessita de diversificar seus modelos de transporte de cargas, face à saturação do modal rodoviário, reduzindo custos e tornando os preços dos produtos nacionais mais competitivos no cenário mundial. E uma alternativa é o modal dutoviário, amplamente usado para transporte de petróleo e seus derivados, tanto em território nacional como nos demais países, e agora, numa parceria público-privada, transportará o etanol brasileiro, tornando-o ainda mais competitivo no mercado internacional.

Por: Priscila Moura de Aguiar é Advogada. Membro do Grupo de Negócios Internacionais do MBAF Consultores e Advogados, ecritório membro da REDE LEXNET e do Business to Lawyers – B2L.  Pós-graduanda em Direito Processual Civil pela Universidade Católica do Salvador. Este endereço de e-mail está protegido contra spambots. Você deve habilitar o JavaScript para visualizá-lo.  / www.gninternacionais.blogspot.com

 

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